Handing-over project to project manager
The building project
Time schedule review
Building site inspection
Time planning / Time schedules including manning
Manning and equipment plan
Setting out at the building site
Chart of accounts
The individual trade contractor as project manager
Order- and delivery plan
WPA and instructions
The main contractor as project manager
Organization chart for the building project
Project examination meetings
Site and safety meetings
Plan for health and safety (PHS)
The exemplary workplace
Building site arrangement plans
The purpose of a formal project handover after the contracts have been signed and before the building project starts is to ensure that the project manager gets the best possible conditions for an effective and rational start-up.
The project manager may not have been involved in tender bids or the negotiation of contracts and cost saving measures etc.
It is of utmost importance that the project manager gets familiar with the bid, associated contracts and other agreements and also that he prepares himself for the project review meeting and works out a realistic plan.
The project manager shall thoroughly scrutinize common conditions, work specifications, drawings, geo-technical reports and similar pre-investigations. The project manager shall also get acquainted with the methods and mentioned in the calculation.
In addition, the project manager shall:
- Enter an agreement with a land surveyor concerning the setting out of the building(s).
- Ensure that authority approval and permits have been issued.
- Notification of commencement
- Enter agreements concerning the handling of waste
- Provide signposting
It is important that the project manager gets familiar with all agreements that have been entered. He shall also scrutinize confirmations, guarantees and whatever solemn declarations that have been made. In addition he shall get familiar with the solidity of involved parties.
In this context he should consider:
- What is the insurable basis?
- Have winter precautions been taken into consideration?
- Waste and bad weather payment?
- How much is the penalty?
- Types of payment conditions?
It is important that the project manager gets familiar with the time schedule or works out a time schedule in accordance with the contract
In order to finish work within the scheduled time it is considered essential that the work is coordinated in accordance with planned time, that resources and drawings are available at the right time, and in order to be able to work out a cash budget.
Finally the project manager shall ensure sufficient manning as well as the procurement of all necessary permits and approvals. He shall also ensure that all necessary investigations are made.
The risk assessment (also referred to as scrutiny), which was carried out during the tendering phase, is followed up. The assessment takes place well in advance of the actual start of construction and should include:
- Analysis of drawings and specifications
- Analysis of planning and work processes
- Analysis of tender control plan
- Ensure that tasks are carried out in pursuance of current legislation, codes and standards.
- Information concerning local conditions
- Ensuring a clear demarcation between tasks in own production and tasks carried out by sub-contractors
- Ensuring that safety and environmental issues are systematized
It is the duty of the project manager to analyze – well in advance – whatever risks may occur as work progresses, for example technical problems, missing drawings, communication problems as well as problems related to workforce, suppliers or sub-contractors, in order to counteract failures and delays before they occur.
The project manager makes a personal inspection of the building site in order to get familiar with site conditions and its nearest surroundings.
The following should be observed and recorded: Technical installations, access roads, welfare provisions, conditions on neighbouring plots, traffic, cleaning and maintenance of roads, fencing, excavations, demolitions, terrain conditions, the possibility of establishing site accommodation, stores and depots.
Once the project manager receives relevant documents it shall be decided whether assumed time coordination and manning are sufficient and whether certain activities may be carried out faster.
To start with the below listed time schedules are worked out:
- Main work plan
- Rolling time schedules (depending on complexity – days, weeks, months)
- Milestones make part of the time planning indicating start time/finish time, coordination time, approval time
- Definition of average manning, explanation of task sequence and internal relationship between tasks, durations are defined and a time schedule is worked out.
For various reasons it is necessary to work out a manning plan – partly as a
part of ‘Plan for Health and Safety´ (PHS), and partly to provide the company with an overview of which work resources are occupied during a given period of time.
It is possible to work out a histogram showing when there will be a need to level out resources and also showing peak loads on welfare installations.
An equipment plan should be worked out showing which machinery/equipment will be used at given times – referring to own equipment as well as hired equipment. Cranes, lifts/hoists, tents, and containers should also be entered in the plan.
Depending on specifications, the project manager shall work out a plan and rules for the handling of waste and find out how the costs related to transport and deposit of waste should be distributed in accordance with the agreements made with other contractors and the client. Rules for the removal of waste may vary from one municipality to the other – but they must be observed.
The setting out of the main grid lines and levels shall be the responsibility of the client- All other setting out shall be the responsibility of the individual contractors and included in their bid. AB92 section 9, subs. 2/ AB 18 § 15
On the basis of the changes that have been made during the planning of the building project, the contractor works out a so-called production calculation.
Whatever changes have been made during the planning phase shall be worked into the calculation. Such changes could refer to savings on sub-contracts, changed material prices, changes in project, errors identified etc.
The revised production calculation will subsequently form the basis for the stage assessment of the building project which usually takes place once a month.
In order to avoid misunderstandings which may result in the delay of payment – or even worse, no payment
– it is important that all financial conditions are firmly established.
The tender documents shall state payment methods to be used.
In order to throw light on amounts to be paid out and times fixed for payment, it is pertinent to work out a payment plan indicating such amounts and conditions.
When payment is based on monthly interim payment certificates it shall be agreed what types of forms and enclosures should be used, as well as a date for submission of the interim payment certificate.
Part of defining the financial aspects also includes identification of persons who are authorized to make financial agreements as well as persons authorized to sign such agreements etc.
Payment is only made on the basis of documented work done on site or on the basis of signed agreement forms. A report documenting stages accomplished shall be worked out at least once a month.
A cash flow budget showing capital needs over time should be elaborated – indicating expected income and expenditure. The budget is detailed according to needs.
It is important to be in control of the entry of expenditure throughout the entire building project. Most companies have worked out an entry system with expenditure accounts. This information is useful in preparing the monthly stage assessment.
The tasks assigned to the individual trade contractor in relation to planning and mobilizing the construction work are manifold, and for that reason he must be well organized and systematic.
The individual trade contractor may use whatever tools are available in order to facilitate his work.
His planning includes such issues as: risk assessment, time schedules including manning schedules, work environment, quality assurance plan, delivery plans, Work Place Assessment (WPA) with appurtenant instructions etc.
The individual trade contractor must get familiar with the bid with respect to quantities, time, prices and delivery conditions. The individual trade contractor needs also to know what methods, types of equipment etc. form the basis of the bid.
He should take the following aspects into consideration:
- How are building site costs included in the bid?
- Has time been allocated for testing etc.?
- Have reservations been made – if yes, what are they?
- Is there a special bid schedule referring to winter conditions?
- Have desired outputs been defined?
The individual trade contractor must observe delivery conditions and time limits defined by the supplier.
Likewise, it is important to determine how supplier liability is defined and to observe that directions issued by the supplier are observed.
The trade contractor is responsible for preparing an order – order cancellation – and delivery plan in keeping with construction progress. The individual trade contractor shall also observe such services/materials that may be supplied by the client.
Delivery plans are based on a system where the materials are delivered at the building site according to need and at the location where they are needed.
Delivery plans help to:
- Create a regular flow of materials with few urgent orders
- Reduce storage needs at the building site
- Reduce material damage and waste
- Optimize the total time used on planning and control of materials
- Avoid accidents related to the internal transfer of materials at the building site.
According to legislation it is the responsibility of the individual trade contractor to work out a written WPA (Work Place Assessment). Likewise he shall work out instructions detailing how work is carried out. The individual trade contractor may use the tools developed by BAR-Ba’s to do so.
A WPA shall include a description of possible physical, mental, chemical, biological and ergonomic impacts as well the risks of accidents.
It is the client’s responsibility to appoint a coordinator to conduct the coordination of safety work during the construction. Normally, this task will be conducted by one of the client’s consultants or by the main contractor.
The coordination of the individual employer’s safety precautions takes place at safety meetings and through personal contacts on the building site.
Site meetings with the purpose of coordinating own production as well as sub-contractor production are held at regular intervals in accordance with a predefined plan. All relevant parties are invited and will receive minutes from the meetings. Rules determining how objections against the minutes are made, must be defined.
Quality control procedures, forms and other documentation worked out by the individual trade contractor must be approved. Also the individual trade contractor shall be informed that quality assurance is part of the agreed output as stated in contracts and agreement forms.
The individual trade contractor also participates in project examination meetings (kick-off meetings) and the starting-up meeting.
The tasks assigned to the main contractor in relation to planning and mobilizing the construction work are manifold and for that reason he must be well organized and systematic.
The main contractor may use whatever tools are available in order to facilitate his work.
The planning includes:
- Risk assessment
- Time schedules including manning schedules
- Working environment
- Quality assurance (QA)
The main contractor must ensure that:
- Updated work drawings and specifications are available
- Work, including pertinent control, is planned in order to avoid failure or to detect a failure as early as possible.
- Deviations are recorded and handled
- Project changes are controlled, coordinated and approved by the main contractor and recorded in minutes from site meetings.
- Interim payment certificates are worked out on a monthly basis.
- Sub-contractors understand agreements entered concerning expected outputs.
The main contractor must also ensure that:
- Suppliers and sub-contractors (SCs) receive all relevant documents.
- A project examination meeting is called for with the participation of SCs and staff in own production.
- A review is carried out of the SC’s quality assurance plan in order to find out if it corresponds to requirements as defined in the tender documents with respect to type and extent.
- Preceding works are concluded and approved and that succeeding SCs have carried out start-up controls.
A common folder structure based on BIPS or Byggeweb directions shall be established. The parties involved must follow these directions.
The main contractor is also responsible for organizing the building project accounts and must make sure that the quality assurance system is accepted.
It is important that the main contractor follows common procedures with respect to the use of weekly reports of work, machine operator reports, piece work agreements, delivery notes and invoices as well as rules for interim calculations.
The main contractor must be familiar with the building project organization chart and must ascertain that that all actors are authorized.
The main contractor must be familiar with all decision and responsibility levels in the building project and he must be aware of his own mandate and the responsibility he holds in the project in question.
It is the duty of the main contractor to make a plan for project examination meetings with the participation of sub-contractors, staff in own production and designers. It is important that all relevant persons involved participate in the meeting in order to secure optimal project implementation. This applies to contractors as well as designers. A successful project examination meeting is characterized by participants who are well prepared – clarification questions have been prepared beforehand.
The main contractor takes minutes from these meetings. Standard forms to be used in project examination meetings have been prepared by The Danish Construction Association (Dansk Byggeri) and
Look into AB 92 § 11 about these meetings and the more detailed regulation according to AB 18 in § 19.
Be aware of the different duties for the parties as stated in AB 18 § 19.
According to AB 18 § 19 it is the client who write down the report of the meeting.
The main contractor calls for a starting-up meeting immediately before construction starts. At this meeting documents relating to the building project will be examined again and last minute questions should be answered. It is important that all sub-contractors and staff in own production participate in the meeting.
The main contractor makes arrangements with the client, sub-contractors and staff in own production concerning the time and frequency of site and safety meetings.
It is important to take minutes of the meetings because such minutes may later serve as documentation in cases where disagreements may have to be settled by arbitration.
Have a look into AB 92 § 19 / AB 18 §§ 31 & 32 about these meetings.
Safety meetings serve to examine issues of safety in the common areas (of the site). Accidents and near-by accidents are recorded.
Emergency meetings are called in case of serious accidents.
For more information concerning ’The Safety Hand Book’, reference is made to Bar-ba.
The main contractor works out a detailed construction plan in collaboration with the subcontractors. This is done in order to secure an optimal construction process.
The construction plan is made as a process diagram using ‘post-it notes’.
In order to get an overview of the work involved in the project, the main contractor works out an overall breakup of the work processes involved in the construction process. This breakup allows for a breakdown into smaller and more transparent activities.
This may refer to both main and sub-activities. Normally, the breakup follows contract areas, location and building sections.
The main contractor must get an overview of the resources necessary in order to complete the work, and also identify the interdependencies between individual activities. In this way the process planning constitutes the basis for the main time schedule, order, order cancellation- and delivery schedules.
The main time schedule is worked out in collaboration with the client and his consultant and on the basis of the construction plan.
In a given project, the main contractor must find out whether it is necessary to work out a PHS? – Has a coordination agreement been entered with the client?
In case the main contractor is also safety coordinator, an agreement to this extent must be entered with the client. The agreement transfers coordinator duties from client to contractor and shall be in writing.
The main contractor should be aware that coordination only refers to common areas. A coordination agreement may also include a clause concerning the duty to complete the PHS.
Further, the following must be clarified:
- Has the consultant properly defined risk areas?
- Who is responsible for site registration?
- Who is responsible for the registration of lifting and hoisting equipment?
- Is the ’exemplary workplace’ (Mønsterarbejdspladsen) or similar used as a model?
The company’s general safety handbook shall be subject-oriented. The introduction contains an organization chart indicating who is responsible for what at the building site. Next follows a time schedule for safety meetings to be held every fortnight. Participants in the meetings are also identified.
The building site must have a safety organization corresponding to the number of actors at the building site and the duration of the construction activity.
Safety organization and procedures relating to safety work shall be identified before construction work commences.
Depending on contract type, the main contractor works out a risk assessment of the working environment, including:
- Noise, dust and vibrations
- The use of scaffolding and ladders
- Heavy lifts / rigging
- Assembly / erecting
- Use of dangerous chemicals etc.
- Fall risk
The tools mentioned in Bar-ba may be used in conjunction with the safety handbook (Sikkerhedshåndbogen). The ’exemplary workplace’ (Mønsterarbejdspladsen) may also prove a useful tool in the day to day safety work.
It is the duty of the main contractor to ensure that staff is certified in the use of equipment and machinery and also to ensure that work with for example epoxy and asbestos is only carried out by staff certified to carry out this kind of work.
The Danish Working Environment Authority (Arbejdstilsynet) has worked out a list of legislation relating to this.
The main contractor must be familiar with, and able to find, information on the statutory requirements and rules worked out by the Danish Working Environment Authority. The main contractor should also be informed that help and advice can be obtained from BST (Bedriftssundhedstjenesten).
The sub-contractors must be informed about building site regulations and must also be informed about what parts of the building site common areas are at his disposal during the construction period.
In order to achieve maximum safety at the building site the main contractor may choose to follow guidelines as set out for the ’exemplary workplace’ (Mønsterarbejdspladsen)
‘The exemplary workplace’ is a simple method used to register, to render visible and to follow up on the safety standards on a building site.
For more information, check The Danish Construction Association (Dansk
Byggeri), Byggeproces or The Danish Working Environment Authority (Arbejdstilsynet).
In cases where no other agreement has been made, it is the client’s responsibility to register the building site with The Danish Working Environment Authority (Arbejdstilsynet).
The main contractor must ascertain that the building site has been registered with The Danish Working Environment Authority. He must also ensure that of lifting and hoisting equipment is registered.
For those parts of the sewer and plumbing work where authorization is required the following rules must be observed:
With respect to excavation and earth moving work the main contractor must observe current rules. These may vary from one municipality to the other.
The contractor(s) responsible for equipment used in the building project shall ensure that the necessary approvals have been obtained. He/they must also ensure that the staff operating the equipment has received adequate training when required.
More detailed information on this issue such as forms and certificates can be
found at The Danish Working Environment Authority (Arbejdstilsynet)
The building site must be arranged in accordance with governmental orders and directions issued by The Danish Working Environment Authority (Arbejdstilsynet). Follow-up on the building site arrangement is in the hands of the safety coordinator. The plan (and the registration) must be conspicuous on site. Signposting on site must be adequate. Likewise, unambiguous directions concerning key contacts must be located immediately next to site entrance.
As the building project progresses, revisions will be made to the building site arrangement plan in accordance with the current construction stage.
A governmental order concerning quality assurance of publicly subsidised construction work was issued in 1986. The order was issued with the purpose of reducing failure and errors in construction work. Most private clients have opted to follow the rules in this order.
Additional information can be found here: The Danish Building Defects Fund (Byggeskadefonden).
AB 18 includes in § 21 rules about the clients possoble demands to quality assurance, samples, aso.
The client must, in conjunction with the main contractor, approve a subject-oriented quality assurance handbook. The different types of forms and documentation used for acceptance check, process control and final check must also be approved. The main contractor shall participate in a project examination meting together with the client or his consultant. Quality assurance procedures will be defined and approved at this meeting.
Procedures for quality assurance at the up-start of new works must be defined. Procedures for quality assurance at trade contract shift must also be worked out.
The main contractor works out a supervision plan for sub-contractors and for work in own production in correspondence with the tender control plan.
Documents worked out by The Danish Construction Association (Dansk Byggeri) may be used in this connection. Documents related to handing over issues and to the use of sub-contractors may also be found here.
Sub-contractors’ quality assurance procedures, forms and other documentation must be approved, and they must be informed that quality assurance constitutes part of the outputs agreed upon in contracts or agreement forms.